Here’s my apfelwein fermenting. It’s basically 5 gallons of apple juice and 2lbs of corn sugar with a white wine yeast. It ferments down to about 9% abv but tastes like watered down apple juice that’s been sweetened just a little. It can be dangerous. You can see the top of the liquid how there’s basically no foam and just a few small bubbles, fermentation is like this with wine yeasts, virtually no krausen (foamy fermentation head), and the liquid appears to be carbonated because it’s releasing so much CO2. The thing at the top of the carboy is an airlock to let the CO2 bubble out but to keep bad bacteria and wild yeasts from getting in and messing with it.
The beer fermenting. Those floaties in the beer are swirling around in convection currents because the yeast is creating so much heat. They’re just proteins that will settle out once fermentation subsides. They’re referred to as trub once they settle.
This is fairly typical of “krausen” on an ale, the brownish spots on top are yeast. After fermentation subsides, so does the krausen, it all flattens out and sinks down to the bottom of the beer becoming trub.